Calling All Story Practitioners: What’s Your Take on These Questions about Storytelling in Management, Leadership?

Pia Christina Brockelmann

Pia Christina Bröckelmann (pictured) is a student in Mexico conducting research for her thesis on “Storytelling in Management – an Effective Tool for Leadership.” Her deadline is very tight; she needs responses this week (March 25 at the latest).

She has been interviewing story practitioners, such as Paul Smith and Karen Dietz, and would like to interview more. Since I’m a curator/reporter rather than a practitioner, I’m not in a position to be as helpful as a practitioner would be.

“I have already reviewed a lot of literature (including academic papers and journal articles) on how storytelling works; its benefits; etc.,” Pia says. “Therefore, I am now more interested in corporate effects measurable impact of storytelling, since there is only a little information about this aspect. I am also interested in examples of problems that companies solved using storytelling.”

If you can help Pia, please email her. The first set of questions indicated in bold type are those she considers most important.

General Questions

  • What types of companies normally use storytelling as a leadership tool and demand your trainings? Multinationals, large enterprises, medium-sized companies, etc.? Which nationalities have already discovered the benefits of storytelling and which resist accepting them? Mostly American companies or also those from other countries?
  • From which industries are those companies that have already implemented storytelling into their management techniques? Is there a focus on a specific industry or is it cross industries?
  • Why do companies implement storytelling? (Is it a trend? Do they want to be up-to-date/modern or do they really see the benefit? Do companies tend to implement storytelling in difficult situations when problems occur (e.g., during merger and acquisitions, job cuts)? What triggers their decision to implement storytelling?)
  • In which field/area of management is storytelling most effective? Which management challenges cannot be solved with storytelling?
  • How does a company implement storytelling to their management techniques? How do they convince each manager to adopt the concept? How do they communicate the change?
  • Does a company need a certain structure to implement storytelling successfully?
  • Which attributes/characteristics does a CEO or a manager need to maximize the impact of storytelling?

Quantitative Questions

  • How many companies have already implemented storytelling into their management techniques? What percentage (approximately)?
  • Can you say something about the rate of success of storytelling? Maybe some examples where companies solved problems through storytelling and where the success was somehow measureable?
  • Which methods can be used to measure/quantify the success of storytelling?
  • Does the implementation of storytelling into a company’s management techniques also have afinancial impact? Is it measurable? Maybe you could present an example?
  • Have you noticed any correlations between the implementation of storytelling and other factors; for example the rate of women, multicultural variety, global players, listed companies, companieswhere PR is really important, etc.?
  • Have you any experience with German companies which implemented storytelling?
  • Have you any advice on how to convince a traditional German company to implement storytelling
  • And finally … Do you think that psychological methods such as storytelling will be established as acknowledged management techniques in the near future? Will they replace traditional ones?

If Only We Had Listened: An Assessment and Broad Overview of the Status And Scope of Narrative Practice

Graham Williams and Dorian Haarhoff of The Halo and the Noose are offering an article, “If Only We Had Listened: An Assessment and Broad Overview of the Status And Scope of Narrative Practice,” and submit this note for readers:
“We share Theodore Levitt’s belief that “…a colourful and lightly documented affirmation works better than the tortuously reasoned explanation”. But this is a long article. The subject is complex, important, strategic – and deserves a fuller treatment. The article addresses those who use narrative in their organisations, and those who consult to and advise those organisations on their use of narrative.” To get a copy of the full article, email the authors.


Main-heads of the article are:
Story is the in thing in business. The business-case for the contribution of narrative is well established, and the use of narrative in organisations is growing fast.
Story Practitioners tend to address the top levels and relatively neglect the middle and lower levels – even though a new workplace paradigm has emerged where leaders and their followers at the levels below could both benefit from an equally-proportioned thinking, caring, doing approach. Practitioners also spend more time and effort on the construction and telling of stories, then the capturing of stories, then the art of story listening. It may be that an effective process is the reverse of these areas, and a shift in the proportion of effort devoted to these areas.
Organisations are not always clear about their narrative intentions and there are traps that need to be avoided. A number don’t use the contribution of narrative along their entire business chain, and confine themselves to applications in marketing, selling, training and scenario planning. A look at the story ice-berg reveals lots of untapped potential. Use is mainly about telling, then capturing, then listening. Too few embed narrative in their culture and measure the impact of narrative.
What questions should practitioners and organisations be asking to get the most out of what story has to offer?


“She listened for a long time and then she told me a story………..” Ben Shrank

Story is the in thing in business

In the business world there has been an explosive uptake of the use of narrative applications by organisations – corporate and non-profit. There has also been a proliferation of narrative practitioners (management consultants, service providers who offer programmes to up-skill sales people in forging emotional connections with customers, leadership coaches, specialists who conduct anecdote circles for research and sense-making purposes, those who assist organisations to tell their brand story, and others).

The case for using narrative has become well established and accepted. Key arguments are:

  • Neurological: Story and metaphor have immense psychological & physiological power. The human brain processes imagined experiences in the same way it processes real experiences
  • Historical/Social: A legacy and atmosphere of stories. Some (like Kendall Haven, Nigel Nicholson, A.C. Grayling) believe that we humans are ‘hardwired’ for story, possess a ‘fiction impulse’, empathise with and find meaning in story. Corporations can effectively plug into this predisposition
  • Cognitive: Our cognitive functioning, the way we learn, remember and grow, is via both abstract and narrative thinking. We employ anecdote, story, metaphor naturally
  • Successes: More and more success stories are emerging of organisations who have made use of story for a range of business challenges. And around the world tertiary institutions and MBA programmes are offering story modules
  • Future: How we remember, plan and dream holds clues for more telling vision and scenario construction, pending transitions

Cynthia Kurtz wisely points out that story is not a panacea for business success. It is not necessarily dominant but complementary. It is with that in mind that we look at the areas where story is being applied by organisations and by practitioners, and where opportunities are being missed.

Where is the emphasis in business?

How and in what areas narrative practitioners (internal and external) and organisations are (and could be) placing their emphasis, is the subject of this document.


New Book Distills Leadership Stories Down to 3 Types

Annette Simmons (The Story Factor, Whoever Tells the Best Story Wins) tells us of six kinds of stories that can be told in organizations; Steve Denning (The Leader’s Guide to Storytelling) lists seven; Paul Smith (Lead with a Story) describes stories for 21 business challenges.3StoriesLeadersTell

But in The Three Stories Leaders Tell, coach and consultant Christine Cavanaugh-Simmons has distilled the stories organizational leaders can tell to just three types:

  • Who am I?
  • Who are we?
  • Where are we going?

I love the fact that book is set up as a workbook – Cavanaugh-Simmons – calls it a “guidebook” – in a workbook-style size and shape. A typical chapter contains an introduction, a reflection, worksheets for several exercises, questions for reflection, tips, examples, a place to record learning about the process, “go deeper” suggestions, and a checklist for tracking impact.

The book is designed in user-freindly fashion with plenty of space for writing, inspiring quotes, and illuminating graphics. The Appendix offers further resources and a dandy bibliography with the work many story luminaries.

Purchasers of the book can request a passkey to a Practitioner Community Wiki.

See the The Three Stories Leaders Tell on Amazon.

Description from the book’s Amazon page: “The Three Stories Leaders Tell is designed to give leaders practical methods for using stories to lead. This guide translates what fuels the power of stories into a wide range of step-by-step techniques for storytelling. Since storytelling is social, the guide also gives how to’s for team and organization wide engagement. … The reader will be able to understand what makes each narrative unique as well as how to craft each narrative with the desired level of involvement and impact. Whether you are a leader, a leadership and organizational development professional, or an executive coach, you will find this guide to be an easy-to-follow resource for one-on-one or group leadership development efforts.”

Cavanaugh-Simmons’s company is CCS Consulting, where she works with leaders and organizations that want to project a memorable identity, drive positive change, and rapidly cascade strategy through the stories they tell. Cavanaugh-Simmons uses stories, storytelling, and narrative process to coach executives and organizations of all sizes through post-merger integration, branding, leadership development, visioning, and strategic planning.

iBook of 150 Life Stories is Free This Week

I’ve cited Reader’s Digest several times in this blog as a major early source of my passion for stories and anecdotes.


Just happened to notice in my Web wanderings today that the magazine’s The Best Life Stories is free on iTunes or the iBook app this week. Here’s a description from iTunes:

Carefully selected from more than 6,500 essays, this wonderful collection of more than 80 stories reveals pure, common wisdom at its best, shared by ordinary people who look at life in an extraordinary way. From heartbreaking accounts to amusing snapshots, The Best Life Stories will leave you feeling hopeful, resilient, and optimistic that happiness can be found even in the darkest moments. Born out of a Reader’s Digest Facebook contest that challenged readers to write their life stories in 150 words or less, this book features the editors’ Top Picks, such as the inspirational tale of . . .

    • one father’s desolation and the renewal he found in his family’s faith and love.
    • one woman’s ability to let go of her abusive past after rescuing an abused dog.
    • a mother’s pride in a life-changing decision made by her autistic daughter.
    • a breast cancer patient’s realization that her identity goes way beyond her diagnosis.
    • a free-spirited woman’s choice to live on her own terms.
    • a young girl’s proud recognition of her grandfather’s simple but profound legacy.


Slideshow Conveys Fabled Design Message

Update: I’m a little rusty about posting to this blog after my 5-month hiatus and forget that when I embed things like slideshows and videos, email subscribers can’t see them. In addition, yesterday, I found something else inexplicably running in the space where the slideshow should be. Bottom line: It’s always a good idea to include the URL of a slideshow or video in my posts. Click here for the slideshow referenced in this post if you can’t see it below.

I’m always on the lookout for elegant slideshow presentations that are not text-heavy but can stand on their own without narration.

One that’s attained some recent buzz is the one below, which uses story to convey its message. “The Great Eye Learns to See” is described as a “fable about using design to help your audience see your message clearly. And what to avoid. For directors, designers, instructional designers, and presenters.”

Although the story appears as text, it is unobtrusively at the bottom of the screen, kind of like closed-captioning.

The images and graphics are lovely, and the slideshow gets its point access. Ultimately it’s a pitch for its designer’s book, but the journey to the pitch is engaging. The book also looks intriguing.

Story Practitioner Atlee Presenting Free Personal-Branding Webinar Feb. 22

Story practitioner Cindy Atlee, a participant in my Q&A series, will co-present a free webinar this Friday, Feb. 22, at noon Eastern. The webinar is entitled “Becoming Known Well: Authentic Personal Branding for Professional Success, Fulfillment, and Contribution.”

AtleeWebinar“What authentic storyline lies at the core of your professional identity, strengths and values?” is the question asked on the page describing the webinar. “A Hero? A Jester? An Innocent? A Revolutionary?” The webinar will offer participants the opportunity to explore their storyline.

More from the site:

You don’t have to “get ahead” by being someone you’re not!

Did you know that your personal brand can help you avoid a work-life identity crisis – and succeed by being your best self at work every day?? Find more professional satisfaction and meaning no matter what you do? Help you become a more influential and inspiring leader? It’s true!

Becoming Known Well
Be more successful – for being who you are!

If you’ve ever felt you can’t be “the real you” at work, then you’re in the right place. The insightful personal-branding strategies we’ll teach you in this session will give you insights on how your authentic personal brand can change all that and has the power to:

    • create more purpose, passion and power in your work life
    • define who you are at your best
    • build a reputation for what matters most to you
    • naturally attract people to your ideas and initiatives
    • position you to make an impact
    • develop your true leadership presence and voice
    • better understand and lead others
    • control your professional destiny

5 authentic personal branding strategies for professional development and personal fulfillment

Join us in this complimentary webinar to learn the five strategies of authentic personal branding, including how to:

    • become known well
    • let purpose trump “charisma”
    • stay in character
    • take a stand
    • get to your “happy ending”

Start your professional journey into your authentic self and find out how your most fundamental uniqueness can contribute greater meaning and motivation to your worklife.

New Book on Why Our Evolution as Storytellers Matters

I just received notification of a new book, From Apes to Apps: How humans evolved as storytellers and why it matters, by anthropologist and a storyteller Trish Nicholson.


I haven’t read it, but it’s a low-risk investment since both Kindle and ebook versions are $2.99. I’m guessing it’s also very short since it’s part of a new “BiteSize Science” series.

From the book’s Web site: “One of the fascinations of science is the endless scope for reading between the lines to ask new questions and speculate on what might be – the ‘what if’ question beloved as much by scientists as story writers. This ebook draws on current research to pose an original perspective on the part played by stories in our human evolution. It casts storytelling in a dominant role in the development of our ancestors’ capacity to think, reason, imagine and relate to others – all the things that make us human. … From Apes to Apps reviews relevant research in psychology, archaeology, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology, to tell the tale of how we evolved with a brain function based on storytelling. And why does it matter? Because we are also primed to obey the stories we are told. This leaves us vulnerable in our new digital environment.”

And a bite-sized excerpt from the bite-sized book:

“In some respects, we are returning to the immediacy and malleability of oral traditions: stories mutated through different tellers and a plethora of listeners.

And yet, this freedom is more apparent – perhaps more virtual – than real. Larger presences making more noise with even better technology are also telling their stories, filling the air with narratives they want us to accept.”

I Invite You to Subscribe — Or Re-Subscribe by Email

Probably the only regret I have about moving A Storied Career to WordPress is that I somehow managed to lose all my email subscribers — and I had about 200. It’s also possible the loss had nothing to do with the change in platforms.


But if you subscribed before, I invite you to do so again, using this link. (Of course, how will you see this post now that you’re not getting posts by email?). By the way, after you click on the link, you may need to wait a few seconds before something pops up on the screen.

And if you weren’t a subscriber before, do consider it. It’s a convenient way to learn of new posts, and if a post doesn’t interest you, you can easily delete.

I value my readers and look forward to rebuilding readership as I start adding meatier content.

Update on 100 Storied Careers

Last summer, I announced plans for a complete revision of my Storied Careers: 40+ Story Practitioners Talk about Applied Storytelling ebook when I hit 100 Q and As.


I hit that mark and thought the revised book would be out in the fall. But life happens, and I have a tendency to take on too many projects.

In addition, I needed to contact the 100 practitioners with whom I’ve done Q&As to get permission to excerpt their responses in the new book. I even engaged the services of a crackerjack virtual assistant to line up those permissions. But 33 story practitioners still haven’t responded. I’m just now at the point where I can follow up with those I still haven’t heard from.

I think I learned my lesson about promising the book at a specific time, but I promise it will be available just as soon as I can make it so.

The updated book has been retitled 100 Storied Careers. In addition to other formats, I plan to format the book for Kindle since demand seems to be so great for that format (all formats except Kindle will be free; Amazon does not permit free Kindle books except at certain times. I will give the Kindle version the lowest price Amazon allows, which is $2.99).

If you’d like to be notified when 100 Storied Careers is ready, Email me, and I’ll put you on the notification list. Please also contact me if you’re one of the Q&A subjects, and you still haven’t given permission.

Q&A Participant Burnham Is Back with Book of Stories about Bicycling for Food

I’ve completed Q&A interviews with 100 story practitioners here on A Storied Career. Note that if you check these out, the formatting is kind of funky because I haven’t fully transferred them to my new WordPress platform. Also look soon for an update on my compilation of the 100 Q&As.

BikeShadowRecently, one of the interviewees, Kimberly Burnham, contacted me about the possibility of contributing to an anthology she’s doing on the theme of “Bicycling for Food.” I’m seriously considering contributing the story of my 2012 Summer Sunrise bike rides. I undertook them to take advantage of how early the sun rises in my northern latitude — to see and photograph incredible sunrises amid the beautiful scenery of Eastern Washington. They were also tied to food in that I was working on losing weight; interestingly, my weight loss slowed during the eight weeks of the bike rides because I wasn’t eating enough to sustain biking up the steep hills here, and my body went into survival mode. The photo shows my shadow at a mid-point in what was an eventual 85-lb. weight loss.

Here’s the story of Kimberly with a new Q&A about the book, and the accompanying biking project. Be sure to note the end of the Q&A if you have interest in contributing to the new anthology and be aware of the Feb. 10 deadline to let Kim know you want to contribute:

Known as The Nerve Whisperer, Kimberly Burnham, PhD (Integrative Medicine)  is the author of  Our Fractal Nature, a Journey of Self-Discovery and Connection, Live Like Someone Left The Gate Open, and the forthcoming book, Harnessing the Placebo Effect, It Is Not What you Think, It Is What You Expect.

This spring she is editing an Amazon Kindle anthology, Bicycling for Food. and then setting off across the US with Hazon, a sustainable agriculture and food justice non-profit. If YOU would like to be one of the 30 or so authors in Bicycling for Food, contact Kim and share your story of how bicycling, the natural environment and food intersect in your life.

Read Kim’s earlier interview.

Why are you combining bicycling and food in your upcoming anthology, Bicycling For Food, Nourished by Beauty?

Obesity costs the United States roughly $150 billion dollars. Imagine if we could put that money towards feeding the 50 million Americans, including 16 million children, who don’t know where their next meal will come from.

Imagine if everyone who is overweight could exercise more, bicycle and enjoy the beauty of this country fully. Balancing food and exercise solves several serious problems.

Medical costs for people who are obese are $1,429 higher than those of normal weight and we are talking about 60 million Americans, 20 years and older who are obese.

Nearly 24 billion dollars will be spent on obesity related health issues in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois and Michigan, four of the 14 states I will be riding my bicycle through, Summer 2013.

My grandfather died of diabetes. My uncle lost his leg to the disease shared by 18 million Americans. Avoiding their footsteps at age 55, I enjoyed a thousand shades of green in the Connecticut Berkshires in 2012, raising money for sustainable living with Hazon, which means Vision in Hebrew.

As I crested the last hill, my bicycle odometer read 53 miles. I never expected to be able to finish the ride. The experience unleashed my inner “I can do it” activist. Less than a month later, five pounds lighter, I rode 71 miles. Yes, I was sore but I could feel the brilliant beauty in my health and surroundings. Now, I can imagine long cross-USA days that begin with dipping my bicycle wheels in Seattle’s Pacific Ocean and setting off on a 3,300 mile journey to Washington, D.C., raising $10,000 and sharing magnificence with everyone I meet. To follow my 2013 summer bicycle ride visit this site.

I look forward to talking to people in towns like Lake Village, IN;  Xenia, OH; Coshocton, OH;  Ohiopyle, PA and Winchester, VA, as I ride my bicycle and take in the sensations and nourishing beauty of this country.

Kimberly2.jpgWho benefits from Sensational Medicine?

The aim of Sensational Medicine is healing the sensory system with new activities. You know the saying, “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. But remember the second half?

“The fastest way to become an old dog? … Stop learning new tricks.” So this year learn something new, a new trick, observe a new sensation, or notice something old in a new way. These are the ways to improve your brain health, your nervous system function, and decrease your pain while improving the quality of your life and the way you move and contribute to your community. Do something unique today to feel better, accomplish your goals and bring a smile to your face.

Pick something up every day and notice the shape, color, texture, sound, taste, smell, temperature, and consistency. Notice how the parts make up the whole and how it is connected to its surroundings. How is it similar or different from the other things around you? What changes in you when you truly see your natural environment and the people around you.

This is an exercise that help you to see others, your connections and relationships while noticing your surroundings. Like bicycling, these activities connect you to the cycles and rhythms of life.

What is an easy exercise for cyclists to improve their vision?

I developed an easy exercise for vision improvement after seeing a pair of Nike goggle designed to speed up an athlete’s reaction times.

I call it: The Rhythm of Blinking

Do this for 2-5 minutes on your bicycle or while walking or even just sitting. Then notice how the colors around you pop more and edges seem clearer.

Blink your eyes while looking around. Look for a specific color, (ie) notice everything that is red in the area. Do this for a minute or so. Stop doing this exercise if as any point if feels unsafe.

Then repeat with a new question in your mind. For example, “What do I see that is round? or “How many people with blue clothes do I see?”

Notice what changed about your balance, your vision, the brightness of colors, etc. Write some notes.

The blinking exercises are like pushups for the eyes. You can hear more of my story and these exercises in my interview at the 2012 Consciousness Raising Summit.

What do you expect to see from your bicycle saddle this summer?

When I was eight years old, my father helped me catch a blue morpho butterfly in Colombia. Its iridescent wings were the most beautiful things I had ever seen. Later I became a professional photographer, then one day it all changed in an ophthalmologist’s office. In his white coat with impressive degrees on the wall, he told me I had a genetic condition of the eyes and that I should consider my life in case I become blind. He said, “Kim, it is genetic so there is nothing you can do.”

Fortunately I found my way to massage school, a profession where you don’t have to be able to see to practice. From there I learned acupressure, craniosacral therapy, nutrition, Matrix Energetics, and more and today at 55 have the best vision of my life.

I can almost imagine the colors, shapes and textures I will see as I ride through towns with image evoking names like Skykomish, WA; Soap Lake, WA;  Pinehurst, ID; Big Timber, MT;  Bowman, ND;  Lemmon, SD;  Hutchinson, MN; and Pepin, WI.

I have an undergraduate degree in zoology, and while my focus was aquatic and marine biology, I studied trees, birds, insects and wildlife management. I look forward to seeing hawks, pelicans, blue jays, as well as the stark black and white of magpies.

Who knows; I might even see a bear, a moose or a stonefly.

I will be posting pictures and describing the sensations I experience along the way. You can contribute a few dollar, sign up to ride with me or follow along on my Hazon page.

What is your interest in Parkinson’s Disease and bicycling?

In 2006, I completed my PhD in integrative medicine. My dissertation focused on the use of hands-on (Integrative Manual Therapy and CranioSacral Therapy) approaches to decrease the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. I read through lots of research showing the benefits of exercise for people with Parkinson’s. Exercise can decreases tremors, while improving stiffness and pain. It can help you sleep better, but there is something special about bicycling.

In 2011, Anke H. Snijders, MD, and colleagues published in the Journal of Movement Disorders, saying, “Patients with freezing of gait (FOG) have episodic problems with generating adequate steps. [Problems initiating and taking steps.] This phenomenon is both common and debilitating in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) or atypical parkinsonism. We recently presented a video case of a patient with longstanding Parkinson’s disease and severe freezing of gait, who showed a remarkably preserved ability to ride a bicycle.”*

A 2010 New York Times article entitled, “Cycling Provides a Break for Some With Parkinson’s,” described one man’s experience in this way, “We helped him mount the bike, gave him a little push, and he was gone, Dr. Bloem said. He rode, even making a U-turn, and was in perfect control, all his Parkinson’s symptoms gone. Yet the moment the man got off the bike, his symptoms returned. He froze immediately, unable to take a step.”

More recent research points to the possibility that not only does bicycling provide a break from symptoms but also delays deterioration.

I am currently working with a number of clients in my private practice who are maintaining quality of life or seeing improvements in their symptoms of Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease, and multiple sclerosis.

What should cyclists do if they want to participate in your upcoming book?

There is no cost to participate, and funds raised through anthology sales will be donated to Hazon, a non-profit serving people in the sustainable agriculture field and connecting people to where their food comes from.

The eBook will include 30 or so bicyclists, including Diana Black, author of The Organic Cyclist blog; Victoria Carmona of A Caring Touch Massage and Matrix Energetics; Adrienne Winton of Hazon Cross USA Program Director; Kathy Hansen, a Storied Career and initiator of Sunrise Bike Rides; and more. Please contact me if you are interested in participating.

Some of the topics and ideas that will come through in the book are: How bicycling and sustainable agriculture or food justice has changed my life. Bicycling helps me get out into the natural environment and helps connect me to the green world, farms and fresh fruits and vegetables. When I bicycle, I enjoy the beauty in the world, and become more conscious of my surroundings and the resources and opportunities I have available to me. Obesity and hunger are connected. What I see as beautiful I preserve, enjoy and keep safe for others in my community and the next generation.

The purpose of the book is to share stories that inspire readers to connect and preserve the natural environment, eat healthier and bicycle or exercise. Each story will share an individual’s experience as well as ways the reader can live a healthier life or steps they can take to ensure healthy food is available for generations to come.

For similar projects I have worked on, see my Amazon Author’s Page.

If you are interested in participating, let me know by Feb 10 or so and then send the following to theburnhamreview AT by May 15, 2013 (Publication on Amazon Kindle for June 2013).

    1. A well edited personal story 500-3000 words attached as a Word document.
    2. A 100-200 word bio with a weblink to your site or somewhere you want readers to go after reading your chapter. (each story will have the authors name under the title and the short bio and weblink at the end)
    3. Title the emails “Bicycling for Food eBook.”

I look forward to hearing your story and how you are changing the world.


*Snijders, A. H., I. Toni, et al., (2011). “Bicycling breaks the ice for freezers of gait.” Mov Disord 26(3): 367-371.